the usual balance in a contra-dividend account is a:

Looking at the income statement columns, we see that all revenue and expense accounts are listed in either the debit or credit column. This is a reminder that the income statement itself does not organize information into debits and credits, but we do use this presentation on a 10-column worksheet.

Research expenditure is charged to income in the period in which it is incurred. Internal development expenditure is charged to income in the period in which it is incurred unless it meets the recognition criteria for intangible assets. Operator of the results of the security threat assessment.

  • In some cases, cash or other assets are received from customers in advance of the period in which goods are sold or services are actually rendered.
  • Expenses incurred on property used in other than carrier operations.
  • Interest during construction is capitalized.
  • V. Net income has no direct relationship to assets.
  • The discount on notes payable reduces the total amount of the note to reflect the discount given by the lender.

The letter states management’s responsibility for the preparation and integrity of the financial statements and related financial information included in the annual report. The letter additionally notes management’s responsibility for the establishment and implementation of adequate internal controls along with a statement regarding the adequacy of existing controls. GAAP requires that a company evaluate it’s ending inventory balance and determine if the inventory is damaged, obsolete or simply worth less than it’s original historical cost. This is done through a Lower of Cost or Market analysis. Inventory should be recorded at historical cost or market value if it is BELOW historical cost.


This ratio is calculated by dividing 365 days by the company’s accounts receivable turnover. Comparisons of this ratio among similar companies in the same industry can be helpful in evaluating a company’s management of credit policies and collections of accounts receivable. Generally speaking, the lower the ratio or fewer the days it takes to collect accounts receivable the better, although that may not be true in all cases. If a company loses potential sales revenues and profits due to implementation of strict credit policies, then the average collection period may improve at the expense of better overall profits.

the usual balance in a contra-dividend account is a:

Any decision regarding replacement of the equipment with a newer, more productive model should be based entirely on the future costs and benefits of the decision options. A manager that allows the equipment’s original sunk cost to be a factor in the decision is not thinking rationally. The only things that matter are a decision’s effect on future revenues and future costs. This is a hard concept for many business owners and managers.

Salaries Expense

Examples of such groups include the drilling and completion team, the flowline and umbilical installation and hookup team, the well and facilities start-up team, and finally the production operations team. The transfer between groups is usually accompanied by certain documents (generally known as pre-commissioning reports, commissioning reports, or “hand-off packages” ). Inspections of those documents have shown that the wells are generally viewed by the operator as being “completed” and “ready to produce” prior to initial production to the platform. The intangible cost of production equipment used in those flow tests was found to be deductible as IDC. To understand how subsea assets are generally distinguishable from the equipment described in the LL&E case, and not treated as IDC, it is useful to review why the court reached its conclusion. The agent should obtain the services of an engineer for assistance in the examination of proper treatment to be awarded platform construction costs. For acquisition of offshore government oil and gas leases.

the usual balance in a contra-dividend account is a:

For a particular account, one of these will be the normal balance type and will be reported as a positive number, while a negative balance will indicate an abnormal situation, as when a bank account is overdrawn. Debit balances are normal for asset and expense accounts, and credit balances are normal for liability, equity and revenue accounts.

Net Assets

Experience shows that new nonproducing properties are acquired each year, and numerous complications may arise in connection with such acquisitions. A wide variety of problems is created through the various contractual agreements made to acquire and explore oil properties.

Most companies do not issue preferred stock; however, it can be an attractive option in accessing capital at a relatively low cost with no obligation to repay the assets received and no sacrifice in voting rights. Most preferred stock investors are other corporations looking to earn a fairly reliable fixed dividend return that is excluded from income taxation under federal tax law. A form of business ownership in which two or more individuals and/or organizations share in the ownership of all of the business assets, liabilities and profits or losses. Partnerships can be formed verbally, although a written partnership agreement spelling out the roles, responsibilities and rights of the partners is highly recommended.

Even more complex are transactions where a producer will notionally sell the economic interest in the mineral property to another taxpayer for cash and one or more production payments. Examiners should be aware that the Service has issued many private letter rulings regarding these monetization transactions, which are usually quite complex. The examiner should require the taxpayer disclose any PLR it received. After reviewing the PLR, the examiner may decide to focus on whether the taxpayer has executed the transaction in accordance with the way it was described in the submission for a PLR. The problems encountered in auditing a waterflood secondary recovery operation are that certain drilling costs do not come within the option to charge to expense the IDC. The drilling of salt water disposal wells and water supply wells, if drilled for the principal purpose of acquiring a water supply for injection into the producing formation, does not come within the option. The taxpayer’s records and vendor’s invoices may merely reflect drilling expense, and it is not easily determined what kind of well is being drilled.

Types Of Equity Accounts

These items are capital assets and may be amortized over their useful life. In the examination of taxpayers that have had large expansions, or have constructed plants that might have an environmental impact, the usual balance in a contra-dividend account is a: the agent should be alert for such costs that might not have been capitalized. Some taxpayers have asserted that certain assets located at their refineries should be depreciated using Asset Class 28.0.

the usual balance in a contra-dividend account is a:

The working interest owner’s gross income from the property must not include income from production which is paid to royalty owners and the other owners of economic interests in the property. Refer to Mesa Petroleum Co. v. Commissioner, 58 T.C. Thus, in some instances, the entire gross income from the property may not be subject to percentage depletion because of the limitations of IRC 613A.

Equity Accounts

It is calculated by (Actual Price – Standard Price ) X Actual Quantity. People reponsible for the organization, control and direction of a company’s business activities. Refers collectively to the people involved in managing a business. Management also refers to the process of organizing, controlling and directing a company’s activities. A file which maintains all of a company’s accounts.

Taxpayer B is willing to do this because the information obtained from drilling the test well conveys productive potential of Taxpayer B’slease acreage. Drilling for an interest in the property many times includes the receipt of an interest in property other than the property being drilled. 77–176, 1977–1 CB 77 provides the income tax treatment for the taxpayers in this type of drilling “deal.” Many times an interest in an oil and gas lease will be transferred to another person in order to get a well drilled on the property at no cost to the transferrer. Taxpayer A, B, and C each own 1/3 of the working interest of an oil and gas lease. Taxpayer A also owns the necessary drilling equipment to drill the well.

Decision has been made to grant or deny unescorted access authority. To each individual with unescorted access to the AOA. That provide warning of the prohibition against unauthorized entry. Air carriers is not permitted for an exclusive area. Information required by paragraphs , , and of this section.

In the depreciation base) shall be charged to operating expense. Included in the accounts prescribed for such amounts.

Income Before Income Taxes

Generally the cost of a production platform should be recovered via depreciation. Oil and gas reservoirs under bays, gulfs, and seas are just like those under land surfaces. Sometimes these reservoirs are extensions of those already proven on shore. Irregularities in subsurface strata exist in such forms as salt plugs or domes, buried reefs, faults, folds, anticlines, or other geologic formations related to the shifting of the earth’s crust. These irregularities or anomalies may indicate the presence of oil or gas deposits. There must be a source-type rock formation, a reservoir-type rock with pore structure able to contain hydrocarbons, and a barrier-type rock which will trap and retain hydrocarbons migrating from their source bed. In the examination of intangible drilling and development expenses, certain unusual arrangements between working interest owners can be found.

Costs related to financial activities. Costs incurred in policy-making activities.